United States Football League
(1983 - 1985)


The USFL began play in 1983 as a summer football league with 12 teams in major American cities. Despite substantial talent on its teams' rosters and decent attendance figures and television ratings, the league decided to switch to a fall schedule for the 1986 season, pitting itself directly against the NFL for attention, while suing the rival league at the same time for antitrust violations. The fallout from the seasonal switch and the $3 awarded from the NFL in the lawsuit verdict led to the league disbanding shortly before it was to begin its first season of autumnal football in 1986.

ARIZONA OUTLAWS / OKLAHOMA OUTLAWS / ARIZONA WRANGLERS

1983 - 1984 1984 1985
ARIZONA WRANGLERS OKLAHOMA OUTLAWS ARIZONA OUTLAWS

The Arizona Wranglers and Oklahoma Outlaws were merged in 1985 to create the Arizona Outlaws. Both Arizona teams were based in Tempe, while the Oklahoma Outlaws were based in Tulsa.


BALTIMORE STARS / PHILADELPHIA STARS

1983 1984 - 1985
PHILADELPHIA STARS PHILADELPHIA STARS ('84)/
BALTIMORE STARS ('85)


BIRMINGHAM STALLIONS

1983 - 1985

PORTLAND BREAKERS / NEW ORLEANS BREAKERS / BOSTON BREAKERS

1983 - 1985

CHICAGO BLITZ

1983 1984


DENVER GOLD

1983 - 1984 1985

HOUSTON GAMBLERS

1984 - 1985

JACKSONVILLE BULLS

1984 - 1985

LOS ANGELES EXPRESS

1983? - 1985?

There may have been one or two more helmet designs used by this team; if so, they were only slightly different from the one shown above.


MEMPHIS SHOWBOATS

1984 (first game only?) 1984 - 1985

Helmet stripes appear to be absent in film from the Showboats' inaugural game (February 26, 1984 vs Philadelphia); see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eSOcVylFLYY .


NEW JERSEY GENERALS

1983 - 1985

OAKLAND INVADERS / MICHIGAN PANTHERS

1983 1984 1983 - 1985
MICHIGAN PANTHERS MICHIGAN PANTHERS OAKLAND INVADERS

The Michigan Panthers and Oakland Invaders merged in 1985, retaining the Invaders name.

I have received conflicting information about the alleged use of silver helmets by the Michigan Panthers during their first few games (or perhaps only a single game) in 1983. When I began this web site way back in 1999, there were one or two helmet history web sites (which I do not think are around anymore) which indicated that the Panthers initially used silver helmets. Here are some of the comments I have received through the years from visitors to this web site:


ORLANDO RENEGADES / WASHINGTON FEDERALS

1983 1984 1985
WASHINGTON FEDERALS WASHINGTON FEDERALS ORLANDO RENEGADES

PITTSBURGH MAULERS

1984 1984

SAN ANTONIO GUNSLINGERS

1984 - 1985

TAMPA BAY BANDITS

1983 - 1985